Barton Lidice Benes is an artist dating back to around 1974. This specific piece is titled Livre Censure (or censored book). He started this technique after being on a train going to Philadelpha and was reading a biography about Nixon. He started scratching things out as he read it, and by the time he reached Philadelphia he had basically scratched out the entire book. After that, he started nailing books shut and tying them up.